Information and Communication Chapter 2 Grade-7 Science and Technology Notes
Information and Communication Chapter 2 Grade-7 Science and Technology Notes

Information and Communication | Chapter 2 | Grade-7 | Science and Technology Notes

Grade-Class 7 Science and Technology Notes of Chapter-2 “Information and Communication Chapter 2 Grade-7 Science and Technology Notes“. Under Chapter-2 ‘Information and Communication‘ of Class 7 Science subject, Students and teachers will be able to find the notes and solutions of fill in the blanks with suitable words, tick the correct alternatives (MCQs), match the followings, state whether the following statements are True or False, short answer questions, long answer questions, answer in a single word/single sentence, differentiate between, give reasons (explain),  diagrammatic questions, glossary, extra word meanings in Nepali language and extra question answers. The below science notes of Information and Communication Chapter 2 Grade-7 Science and Technology Notes is based on new curriculum of the year 2077/2078-2021 published by Government of Nepal, Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, Curriculum Development Centre. Credit to “Vidyarthi Pustak Bhandar“.

Information and Communication Chapter 2 Grade-7 Science and Technology Notes

Test Your Concept

1. Write ‘T’ if the statement is true and ‘F’ if it is false.

a. Technology makes our life difficult. (False)

b. Telephone is a device for communication. (True)

c. The internet connects communication devices with each other. (True)

d. A computer program is collection of different types of software. (True)

e. System software controls the overall activities of a computer. (True)

f. The internet allows to study through e-book. (True)

Also Check:

Energy In Daily Life | Chapter 7 | Grade-7 | Science and Technology Notes – New Course 2079-2081

Force and Motion | Chapter 6 | Grade-7 | Science and Technology Notes – New Course 2079-2081

Life Processes | Chapter 5 | Grade-7 | Science and Technology Notes – New Course 2079-2081

Biodiversity and Environment | Chapter 4 | Grade-7 | Science and Technology Notes – New Course 2079-2081

Living Beings and Their Structure | Chapter 3 | Grade-7 | Science and Technology Notes – New Course 2079-2081

Information and Communication | Chapter 2 | Grade-7 | Science and Technology Notes – New Course 2079-2081

Scientific Studies | Chapter 1 | Grade-7 | Science and Technology Notes – New Course 2079-2081

2. Multiple choice questions (MCQs):

a. Which of the following is an ICT device?

A) television
B) mobile
C) both A & B
D) hard disc

Answer: C) both A & B

b. Which of the following software fulfils users need?

A) system
B) utility
C) application
D) malware

Answer: C) application

c. Which of the following option of email allows a user to send external files?

B) attach
C) compose
D) both A & B

Answer: B) attach

d. The internet can be used for:

A) searching information
B) sending mails
C) spreading false messages
D) both A & B

Answer: D) both A & B

e. A computer program is a collection of

A) hardware
B) software
C) instruction
D) malware

Answer: B) software

3. Fill in the gaps using the given words: (communication, photo editing, program, computer, internet, accounting)

a. Internet connects different devices and allows them to make communication.

b. To use Email, we need to connect our computer to the internet.

c. Photos can be cropped using photo editing software.

d. Utility software provides services to the computer.

e. MS-Excel is used for accounting purpose.

f. Computer virus is a computer program.

4. Differentiate between:

a. Hardware and software

Answer: The difference between Hardware and Software are –

1. Hardware is a physical part of the computer that causes the processing of data.1. Software is a set of instructions that tells a computer exactly what to do.
2. Hardware is manufactured.2. Software is developed and engineered.
3. Hardware cannot perform any task without software.3. Software can not be executed without hardware.
4. When damaged, Hardware can be replaced with a new one.4. When damaged, Software can be installed once more using a backup copy.
5. Hardware cannot be infected by Viruses.5. Software can be infected by Viruses.
6. Examples of Hardware are hard drives, monitors, CPU, scanners, printers, keyboard, mouse, RAM, ROM, etc.6. Examples of Software are Windows 10, Adobe Photoshop, Google Chrome, MS Word, Excel, PowerPoint, MySQL, etc.

b. System software and application software.

Answer: The differences between system software and application software are –

System SoftwareApplication Software
1. System software are designed to manage the resources of the system, like memory and process management, security, etc.2. Application software are designed to fulfil the requirements of the user for performing specific tasks.
2. A computer system cannot run without system software.2. A computer system can easily run without application software.
3. System software is a general purpose software.3. Application software is a specific purpose software.
4. System Software programming is complex than application software.4. Application software programming is simpler as comparison to system software.
5. Examples of System Software are device drivers, assemblers, drivers, debuggers, compilers, android, mac operating system, ms windows, etc.5. Examples of Application Software are adobe photoshop, web browsers, Ms Office, Graphic design software, media player, word processors, games, etc.

5. Short answer type questions:

a. What is a device?

Answer: A device is a unit of physical hardware or equipment that provides one or more computing functions within a computer system.


A device is a unit of physical hardware or equipment that provides one or more computing functions within a computer system.


A complete piece of physical hardware that is used to compute or support computer functions within a larger system is called a device.

b. Which device is used for one way communication?

Answer: Television is a device used for one way communication.

(You can pick any – Radio, Newspaper, etc.)

c. What is technology?

Answer: Technology is the use of scientific knowledge for practical purposes or applications, whether in industry or in our everyday lives.


The methods, systems, and devices which are the result of scientific knowledge being used for practical purposes is called a technology.


Technology is science or knowledge put into practical use to solve problems or invent useful tools.

d. What is website?

Answer: A website is a collection of pages and data.


A website is a collection of web pages and related content that is identified by a common domain name and published on at least one web server.


A Web site is a related collection of World Wide Web (WWW) files that includes a beginning file called a home page.

e. What is a search engine?

Answer: A search engine is a software that helps people find the information they are looking for online using keywords or phrases.


A search engine is a software system designed to carry out web searches.


A search engine is an online tool that is designed to search for websites on the internet based on the user’s search query.


A computer system designed to perform searches of files stored in a database through spiders or bots is called a search engine.

f. What is an e-book?

Answer: E-book, a short form of electric book is a type of a book which is stored in digital format in computer or electronic version of printed books.


An e-book is a book publication made available in digital form, consisting of text, images, or both, readable on the flat-panel display of computers or other electronic devices.


An e-book is a book presented in a format that allows you to read it on an electronic device like a computer or handheld device.


An e-book is a text presented in a format which allows it to be read on a computer or handheld device.

g. What is cropping a photo?

Answer: Cropping a photo is the act of improving a photo or image by removing the unnecessary parts.


Removing or adjusting the edges of a photograph is called cropping a photo.


Cropping is the process of trimming the edges of a photo with photo processing software.

h. What is utility software?

Answer: The software that provides services to users and to the computer system is called utility software.


The system software that helps to maintain the proper and smooth functioning of a Computer System is called utility software.

6. Long answer type questions:

a. What is ICT? Name some ICT devices.

Answer: ICT, or information and communications technology, is the infrastructure and components that enable modern computing.

A diverse set of technological tools and resources used to transmit, store, create, share or exchange information is called ICT.

Some examples of ICT devices are computers, laptops, printers, scanners, software programs, data projectors, interactive teaching box, digital camera, photocopier, pen drive, popplet, fax machine, telephones, multimedia, etc.

b. Define the internet. Write some uses of the internet.

Answer: An electronic communications network that connects computer networks and organizational computer facilities around the world is called internet.


The Internet is a global network of billions of computers and other electronic devices.

Some uses of the internet are –

i) Electronic mail.

ii) Search engines.

iii) Education.

iv) Research.

v) E-commerce.

vi) Social networking.

vii) Online banking.

viii) File transfer.

ix) Advertising.

x) Creation of employment.

c. What is a browser? Give any two examples.

Answer: The application which helps us to browse the internet is called a browser.


A web browser is application software for accessing the World Wide Web or a local website.

The two examples of web browser are Google Chrome and Mozilla.

d. What is Email? Write any two advantages and disadvantages of it.

Answer: Email is a way of exchanging messages or mails using electronic devices between two or more people.


Electronic mail (e-mail) is a computer-based application for the exchange of messages between users.


A system for sending and receiving messages electronically over a computer network is called Email.

The two advantages and disadvantages of E-mail are –

Two advantages of Email –

i) Email is a fast way of communicating and delivering mails in seconds.

ii) Email is a free tool. The only requirement for the email is the internet.

Two disadvantages of Email –

i) Emails may contain malwares that infect our computer.

ii) Email can be sent anonymously, which means that some people use it for malicious purposes, such as bullying, spreading hate and rumors.


Or,Email is a electronic mail service where an internet user sends and receives electronic letters (mails).

The advantages and disadvantages of E-mail are – (Pick the points as per your need! 😊)

10 Advantages of Emails are:

(1) Cost – Email services are entirely free apart from the cost of internet connection.

(2) Speed – Emails are extremely fast as in a matter of seconds emails are sent and received by users in the world.

(3) User friendliness – Emails are also easy to use. Even people with basic skills can send or receive emails.

(4) Accessibility – Emails can be used as storage. People can access files and documents stored in emails any part of the world anytime.

(5) Automation – Emails also include an auto-responder facility.

(6) Prioritize – Messages received in an email can be easily filter and prioritize important emails.

(7) Attachments – Email has a feature of attachment where it can attach Photos, Videos, Music, Document, PDF file, etc.

(8) Advertisements – Emails can also be used as a tool of product marketing is considered to be less expensive too.

(9) References – When email is sent or received, it is always stored on the mail server unless the user deletes them. These kinds of references are more easier compared to an old traditional method of using papers.

(10) Environment friendly – Emails are completely an electronic service. A Paperless service means that there is no actual damages caused to the environment.

10 Disadvantages of Emails are:

(1) Internet Access – It is not possible to use an email service in this area since there is no internet access.

(2) Spamming – If you don’t use a firewall or an anti-spam software, there can be overwhelming number of spam mails in your inbox.

(3) Virus Attacks – Email can be one of source of virus. Especially viruses can reach out computers in the form of attachments and cause some serious damages to the system.

(4) Information Overheads – If we left emails unread for a long time, this could potentially cause information overheads. To avoid this, we have to stay updated by regularly checking the email account.

(5) Timely Response – We can miss important messages if there is no response of emails in time. So, these mails must be replied as soon as possible.

(6) Misunderstandings – Emails can also be easily misunderstood, if it is misinterpreted by the sender. So, before sending the mail, the user has to go through and ensure that the messages are well constructed.

(7) Direct Interactions – Emails lack on the side of direct interaction because it is treated similar to a conversation.

(8) Recovery – Recovery of an email account is difficult, if the user forgets the username or the password. The only option for this will be either by answering a security question or using a phone number.

(9) Disruptions – Sometime Inbox can be flooded with emails that can be disruptive to go through one by one. Due to this there are chances to miss important emails.(10) Data Loss – Comparing to a hand written letter, emails are highly vulnerable to data loss. It takes no time to destroy or delete an email. And also once the site goes down, the data on the server can never be retrieved.

e. What is photo editing? Why do you need it?

Answer: Photo editing is the art of changing images.


The processes of altering images, whether they are digital photographs, traditional photo-chemical photographs, or illustrations is called photo editing.


Photo editing is the process in digital photography of making adjustments to photographs in a photo editing program.

Photo editing is needed because of the following reasons:-

i) Changing the background of a picture.

ii) Editing will help us to build our style.

iii) Correcting colors in photos.

iv) Retouching.

v) Cropping.

vi) To adjust contrast and brightness.

vii) Restoring images.

viii) Image masking.

ix) Creating shadows.

x) Marketing.

xi) Saves the cost of photo editors.

f. Define application software. Give its examples.

Answer: Application software is a set of programs designed to do a specific job such as producing electricity bills, producing bills at the departmental store and preparing a document for users.


Application software is a computer program that performs a specific function, be it educational, personal, or business.

The examples of application software are –

i) Microsoft word.

ii) Google chrome.

iii) Skype.

iv) Firefox.

v) Windows Media Player.

vi) VLC Media Player.

vii) Adobe Photoshop.

viii) Adobe Illustrator.

ix) Graphics and Design Software.

x) CorelDraw.

xi) Microsoft Excel.

xii) Microsoft PowerPoint.

xiii) Spreadsheet Software.

xiv) Video Games.

xv) Photo editor.

g. What is computer virus? Write any three precautions to protect your computer system from it.

Answer: Computer virus is a computer program which is written intentionally by programmers using programming languages to damage data or programs or to disturb computer users.


A computer program which runs on any computer system without the user’s knowledge is called a computer virus.


A computer virus is a type of malicious software, or malware, that spreads between computers and causes damage to data and software.


A malicious software program loaded onto a user’s computer without the user’s knowledge and performs malicious actions is called a computer virus.

i) Turn on the firewall protection.

ii) Keep all program up to date.

iii) Use spyware or Antivirus software that protect computer system.

iv) Make sure your signal are well-chosen and protected.

v) Don’t open suspicious attachments or click unusual links in messages.

vi) Browse the web safely.

vii) Stay away from pirated material.

viii) Scan the storage devices regularly.

h. What is MS-Excel? Name any two types of charts supported by it.

Answer: Microsoft Excel (MS-Excel) is the most popular and widely used spreadsheet program, developed by Microsoft Corporation of USA.


Microsoft Excel (MS-Excel) is an electronic spreadsheet program that is used for storing, organizing, and manipulating data.

The two types of charts supported by Microsoft Excel (MS-Excel) are – (Select any two … )

i) Pie Chart.

ii) Bar Chart.

iii) Line Chart.

iv) Area Chart.

v) Column Chart.

vi) Doughnut Chart.

vii) XY (Scatter) Chart.

viii) Bubble Chart.

ix) Radar Chart.

x) Surface Chart.

i. Write any four codes of conduct of Internet users.

Answer: The four codes of conduct of Internet users are –

i) Do not share your personal information such as your name, surname, date of birth, age, mobile number, address, bank account numbers to others.

ii) Do not share personal information of your friends and relatives to others without their permissions.

iii) Do not share you password to others.

iv) Do not auto-save your password in schools, offices, public where the computer may be used by many users.

v) Do not create a fake account in Social media.

vi) Do not share personal and group photos to others without their permissions.

vii) Immediately inform the ‘Cyber Bureau of Nepal’ if your account is hacked and getting threats.

viii) Inform to your parents and teachers if unknown people try to create relationship through social media.

ix) Do not open email sent by unknown persons without verification.

x) Never open unknown ‘spam mail’ and do not send this type of mail to others.

xi) Do not share photos in social media that provide the information that you are away from home which may create problems.

(You may pick any four points or as per your need !)

7. Draw the following screen of Excel (2007) 2016 and label the given components:

a) Insert tab

b) Application close button

c) Cell

d) Status bar

e) Zoom bar

f) Font group

g) Office button

h) Cut button

i) Ribbon


#From above grade/class-7 science notes of Chapter-2 “Information and Communication” New Course 2079-2081, we hope students will be able to:

– Introduce the means of information and communication technology and give some examples.
– Introduce the internet, email and browsers and their uses.
– Solve simple numerical problems in spreadsheet software and construct graphs and charts.
– Prepare the slides for presentation containing text and images.
– Tell about computer virus and safety measures against computer virus.
– Introduce the types of software.
– Tell about the code of conducts related to computer system.

Thanks for visiting us. We are really happy providing the notes of Grade/Class-7 Science, ‘Information and Communication’ Notes based on new course of year 2079-2081 under Science and Technology. Please leave comments or suggestions so that we can improve.😊
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